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Marmalade Care Ltd

Vascular Dementia

Vascular Dementia is a common form of Dementia caused by a reduced blood flow to the brain a mini stroke where the blood supply to the brain is blocked off or lots of mini strokes these are called transient ischaemic or TIAs  attacks that cause widespread damage to the brain there is no cure for this as you cant replace the brain cells that have disappeared before the diagnosis but a medicines and a health life style may slow it down .

It is estimated there are 150.000 people affected in the UK.


SYMPTOMS

Difficulty making plans 

Problems with concentration 

Changes in behaviour 

Feeling disorientated and confused 

Difficulty walking and balance 

Though there is no cure eating a healthy diet 

Stopping smoking 

Cutting down on alcohol

Taking medicines such as those to treat blood clots, high blood pressure and lowe cholesterol can help 








DEMENTIA

THE BOOKCASE OF LIFE

Imagine you have a bookcase with several shelves

each shelf is packed with books and each book is a memory about your life it is about people you have met and places you have been memories happy or sad are in all these books.

the shelves are stages in your life starting at the bottom .

shelf number 1 bottom shelf

memories of when you were a child

shelf number 2

memories of your school ,college maybe even university.

shelf number 3

starting out in your chosen career.

shelf number 4

your first love ,getting married.

shelf number 5

having children.

shelf number 6

your children getting married and having children.

shelf number 7 top shelf

your retirement years .


Now imagine someone comes along and shakes the bookcase so hard that some of the books fall out .

Notice that more books fall out from the top shelves then they do from the bottom .

Not forgetting these books are your memories .


shelf number 7

the top shelf is almost empty

the shelf that holds your day today memories your memories of now !

so you cant remember who people are or where you are.

you are not familiar with your surroundings as you do not remember them .


shelf number 6

the shelf has a lot of books missing your memories of your children getting married of you becoming a grandparent .

so your not quite sure why they are there because who are they you do not know or remember them.


shelf number 5

you may have forgotten who your children are because the book of memories fell out of the bookcase .


shelf number 4

the book is missing from when you got married its gone it fell out ,the man in your house could be an intruder because you have no idea who he is.


shelf number 3

there a few books left here you clearly remember your days working at the bank and your achievements there and that you were there for 5 years .

but you don't know what you did after that because that book fell out .


Shelf number 2

there are books here and there on this shelf you can remember you went to college and that you studied accounts ,your school days and friends are still there but only sometimes because that book of memories is teetering on the edge of the shelf and is about to fall out.


shelf number 1

this shelf is almost full you remember your brothers and sisters and your parents and you spend all day wondering where they are and why there not looking for you


I REALLY HOPE THIS HELPS

MARINA 

COPD 


COPD  is the name given for a group of lung conditions that can cause breathing difficulties .

This includes emphysema-damage to the air sacks in the lungs -chronic bronchitis that will cause long term inflammation to the airways .

Most people who suffer are over 40 years old however it has been known in rare cases of people younger .

  

 Causes of COPD

smoking is the main cause of COPD and is thought to be responsible for around 9 out of 10 cases.

Air pollution

Exposure to chemicals

Exposure to industrial dust and fumes

indoor cooking with poor ventilation

The major causes of death were found to be

Acute -on-chronic respiratory failure

Heart failure

Pulmonary infection

Pulmonary embolism

Cardiac arrhythmia

Lung cancer


SYMPTOMS

Chronic cough

lack of energy

Decreased ability to exercise

Unintended weight loss

Frequent respiratory infections

Wheezing

Shortness of breath

Tightness in the chest

A cough that wont go away

Coughing up blood or mucas

Pain or discomfort when breathing out


Although there is no cure for this disease avoiding certain things may help

Smoking

Alcohol

Chocolate

Fried foods

Dairy products 



SUNDOWNING 

Sundowning is also known as late-day confusion and is a form of Alzheimer's and other related forms of dementia .

Sundowning is not a disease but a group of symptoms effecting the person living with dementia.

This normally occurs late afternoon and carries on into the night .

the person will become confused and angry and it always seems to be as daylight fades and in the middle stages of dementia .

Some scientists believe that your body clock is affected by dementia and the part of your brain that recognizes when your asleep and when your awake breaks down.

These are a few things that might help

Avoid stimulant's

Alcohol

Coffee

Nicotine

Sweets and chocolate

Try to keep outings and appointments earlier in the day

Close the curtains and turn the lights out in the evening .

Make afternoons quite and calm .

Limit food intake in the evening to a snack rather than a hefty meal .


CHRONIC TRAUMATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY


Dementia pugilistica punch drunk syndrome

This is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repeated head injuries,

such as constant blows to the head and or repeated concussion .

this used to be called punch drunk syndrome or dementia pugilistica it is very common in boxers .

the disease usually begins several years after repeated blow to the head.

Symptoms

Changes in mood

Difficulty thinking (cognitive impairment )

Impulsive behavior

Short term memory loss

as the disease progresses ,slurred speech (dysarthria)

Significant memory loss

Parkinsonism symptoms

Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)

there is no cure

This diagnosis will be treated with pain management and behavioral therapy to help with mood swings ,difficulty planning and carrying out tasks which will affect daily living as in personal care ,social interaction and general wellbeing.

The seven stages of Dementia 

no impairment 

everyone starts at stage 1 there are no symptoms of impairment and functions are normal

2  

very mild cognitive decline 

this can vary between age related problems that most seniors face such as forgetting things (dates,places ect.)

some of the signs of this stage 

forgetting everyday phrases

forgetting things like where you put your keys .

mild cognitive decline

this is where symptoms for dementia or Alzheimer's can be come more apparent  to family and friends 

it will not have a big impact on everyday life 

you may notice 

problems with complex tasks

memory loss, forgetfulness 

diminished work performance 

getting lost 

difficulty driving 

disorganization 

4

Moderate cognitive decline 

This is sometimes described as early onset Dementia or Alzheimer's

Symptons are more noticeable and the person concerned should be seeing a health professional

Symptoms may include 

Social withdrawal 

Moodiness

Non responsive   

Trouble with tasks

Denial 

Moderately severe cognitive decline 

The person concerned is now likely to need help with everyday tasks such as washing and dressing 

you may need a home carer 

Symptoms can include 

Confusion 

Forgetfulness

Memory loss i.e. personal details

Reduced mental ability for problem solving .

6

Severe cognitive decline 

Also known as middle stage Dementia or Alzheimer's 

The person concerned will now need help with daily activities such as using the bathroom or eating 

Symptoms may include 

Difficulty sleeping 

Increased paranoia 

Delusions 

Anxiety 

Difficulty recognizing loved ones 

7

Very severe cognitive decline 

 Described as late stage Dementia or Alzheimer's

The person concerned is now unable to care for themselves 

They may lose the power to walk or speak


-----------------------

 

 

SEMANTIC DEMENTIA 

 In the past it was believed that all dementia was the same this is not so only recently has it been that distinct disorders such as Semantic Dementia it is related to frontotemporal dementia it is a progressive loss of the ability to remember words ,faces and objects this is from the shrinkage of the temporal lobe in the brain.

the problem usually starts with words people will forget the names of things like calling milk water a dog a cat they may also have problems understanding what is said.

people also have difficulty recognizing faces of the people they see all the time

they will find it hard to recognize objects.

people might become self centered not bothering about other peoples feelings becoming preoccupied with certain activities having a fixed routine daily .

the person cannot change there behavior as it is due to the damage that is effecting there brain cells.

people will normally stay physically well but may become slower as the disease progresses.

this condition normally happens to people between 50 and 65 years of age .there is no cure but certain medication can help with the symptoms.


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                                                                                          WATER INTOXICATION

                                                                                  

                                                                                Also known as water poisoning

                                           This is a disruption to the brain caused by drinking to much water.

This is very rare and whilst it might be very difficult to consume to much water it does happen and death can occur due to                                                                                                       excessive intake of fluid .

Drinking to much water can increase the amount of water in the blood this can dilute the electrolytes, and especially sodium in                                                                                                         the blood.


          WHEN SODIUM FALLS BELOW 135 MILLMOLES PER LITRE DOCTORS REF TO IT AS HYPONATREMIA


This is very common in sports people or endurance training but it does occur in people with mental health issues .

On one occasion because an athlete was not properly rehydrated ,his sodium levels fell below130mm0l/1 he then developed

                                                       water on the brain this is known as hydrocephalus .

                                                    developed a hernia in his brain stem and this lead to his death .

Overhydration happens when someone drinks more than there kidneys can get rid of via urine .

A build up of fluid in the brain is called cerebral edema which can effect the brain stem leading to central nervous disfunction .

                                                               In severe cases this can lead to seizures ,brain damage and comas .

                                                                                                      

  SYMPTOMS

                                                                                            Confusion disorientation

                                                                                                            Nausea

                                                                                                         Vomiting

                                                                                                     double vision

                                                                                             difficulty breathing

                                                                                                muscle cramps

                                                                    not being able to identify sensory information

                                                    in rare circumstances swelling of the brain which can be fatal.

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